“Once settled in this monastery, he translated a great number of books from the languages of diverse peoples”: The Constantinian Corpus

For European science and medicine, the Long Twelfth Century (from roughly 1050 to 1225) is characterized by the eagerness with which translations were made from Arabic and Greek into Latin. Constantine was at the vanguard of this movement, and we have already introduced him as the first translator of Islamic medicine into Latin. But Constantine also stands out among the translators of this period as a rare immigrant to Europe. With one exception, all the others were Europeans who traveled to other language zones, learned a second (or third) language, and then turned those skills toward Arabic or Greek science.1 Constantine, in contrast, was not simply translating texts. He was translating himself.

In proudly adopting the epithet Africanus in his “verbal seal”—ego Constantinus africanus montis cassinensis monacus—Constantine took his immigrant status as a lifelong badge. Indeed, it may be from Constantine himself that his Cassinese biographers got his stories of fabulous adventures that allegedly took him to Cairo, India, and Ethiopia. It is hardly surprising that Constantine’s first biographers at Monte Cassino claimed that, once he joined the monastery, “he translated very many books from the languages of diverse peoples.” We actually have no evidence that Constantine traveled beyond the sea corridor linking southern Italy to Sicily and North Africa. But there remains a pressing question: just how many languages did he know? And how extensive, really, was the corpus of texts he produced at Monte Cassino?

So far as we have yet been able to determine,2 Constantine knew only two languages: Arabic, his native tongue, and Latin, a language for which he required “polishing” from an editor.3 One must guess that he also acquired a bit of the local Italian vernacular of southern Italy, but neither it, nor the form of French spoken by the new Norman overlords of southern Italy, were languages used for medical writing in this early period. It is surprising, therefore, that among the works attributed to Constantine by his biographers—at least two of whom likely knew him personally—there are works that are not translations from Arabic.

The truth of the matter is that we are still in the process of figuring out exactly what happened at Monte Cassino in the years between Constantine’s arrival ca. 1076 and his death, “full of days,” toward the end of the century. Indeed, as we will see in subsequent posts, the development of what we now consider the Constantinian corpus began before Constantine’s arrival and continued after Constantine’s death. At least one element of his corpus apparently wasn’t completed until the end of the Long Twelfth Century. But we get ahead of ourselves.

In a biography of Constantine, begun around 1105 by his contemporaries, Leo Marsicanus and/or his continuator, Guido, and then incorporated into Peter the Deacon’s collected biography of Cassino’s most famous personalities in the 1140s, we find twenty, and then (in Peter’s version) twenty-three, works ascribed to Constantine. Interestingly, these lists do not capture all the works we know Constantine was responsible for. For example, one of the works with his distinctive “verbal seal” that is missing from the Cassinese booklists is his text On the Stomach (De stomacho), which he dedicated to one of his patrons, the archbishop of Salerno, Alfanus (d. 1085).

Constantine’s dedication of his treatise On the Stomach to his patron, archbishop Alfanus of Salerno (d. 1085). This copy was made in England in the later 13th century. Credit: Oxford, Pembroke College, MS 21, f. 1ra.

Why Peter listed three more works than the earlier biographers did is an important question. The reason for Peter’s inclusion of the text on surgery (Chirurgia) may be because, by the time he was writing in the 1140s, the text, which had been left unfinished at Constantine’s death, had now been completed. The Surgery is actually Book IX of the second part, the Practica, of Constantine’s translation of ʻAlī ibn al-ʻAbbās al-Majūsī’s Arabic Kitāb kāmil aṣ-Ṣināʻa aṭ-Ṭibbiyya, “The Complete Book of the Medical Art.” For reasons we’ll hear more about in next month’s post, Constantine only translated the first third of Book IX. Between the time Leo and Guido were writing, soon after Constantine’s death, and when Peter was writing, two other translators had come along to complete his work: one a recent convert from Islam, Johannes, and the other someone named Rusticus, son of Bella “and by profession a physician,” from Pisa. What their connection was with Monte Cassino is unclear, but one of the few manuscript witnesses to the translation still resides in a thirteenth-century copy at the abbey.

This passage falls at the point of transition between Constantine’s portion of the translation of the Surgery (Pantegni, Practica, Book IX) and the completion by Johannes, a converted Muslim, and Rusticus of Pisa. Berlin, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin Preussischer Kulturbesitz, MS lat. fol. 74, 12th century, f. 261r. This Berlin manuscript, and one still in the library of Monte Cassino (cod. 200), are the only independent witnesses to this completed translation.

The second text added to Peter’s list, but missing from Leo and Guido’s, is more puzzling since we don’t have any reason to think that Constantine didn’t finish it himself. This was the De coitu, on sexual intercourse. It is certainly as Constantinian as many others we ascribe to him, since its Arabic original can be assigned to the 10th-century physician from Qayrawan, Ibn al-Jazzār, whom we have met before. In fact, there is a second book on sexual intercourse (literally called, “The Little Book of Intercourse”) that seems also to come from Monte Cassino, and both texts circulate with other elements of Constantine’s works. We must assume (given the monks’ vows of celibacy) that interest in this topic stems either from lay patrons of the monastery or from debates on-going in the eleventh century about celibacy or marriage.4

The third new text on Peter’s list, the Prognostics, is important to flag for a different reason. Like the De coitu, we have no reason to doubt (in the absence of stylistic analyses) that it is an authentic translation by Constantine; it is certainly translated from Arabic. But it is distinctive in a sense. One of the methods we are using in our work on Constantine’s transformative impact on medicine in the Long Twelfth Century is to look for patterns in the circulation of his texts in manuscripts from the period. The Prognostics almost never circulates on its own, nor is it found in larger collections of Constantiniana. Rather, it is found with one or more of a group of texts historians of medicine call the Articella, the “little art.”

This basic Latin medical teaching curriculum, which would go on to form the foundation of medical teaching all across Europe for the next 400 years, was, we know now, assembled at Monte Cassino. And it was a multilingual endeavor. Here are the basic components:

  • Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq’s (Latinized as “Johannitius”) Isagoge – translated from Arabic
  • the Hippocratic Aphorisms – translated from Greek
  • the Hippocratic Prognostics – translated from Arabic
  • the Hippocratic Regimen in Acute Diseases – translated from Arabic
  • Philaretus’s On Pulses – translated from Greek
  • Theophilus’s On Urines – translated from Greek
  • Galen’s Tegni (also known as the Ars parva or “the Little Art”) – translated from Greek

Constantine translated Ḥunayn’s Isagoge, a basic summary of Galenic medicine—though that, too, is missing from the Cassinese biographers’ lists.5 The translation of the Regimen in Acute Diseases was also from Arabic, making Constantine the most likely suspect as its translator. Yet it, too, is missing from the Cassinese lists.

What of the Greek texts in the Articella? We have no reason to believe that Constantine knew Greek well enough to translate them himself, though he may have acquired some limited command of the language in a monastery where Greek speakers were a regular feature. It is surprising, therefore, that his biographers attributed Galen’s Tegni to him. Who was (or were) these other translator(s) from the Greek? That remains one of the great mysteries of medicine in late eleventh-century Monte Cassino!

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS lat. 7102, s. xii in. (Bobbio), ff. 35v-36r, showing the opening of the new translation, from the Greek, of the Hippocratic Aphorisms made, apparently, specifically for use in the Articella collection. Several pages of this copy are a palimpsest over the Old Latin Aphorisms translation.6

The Articella collection is not the only part of what we now consider the Constantinian corpus to display signs of a fusion of Arabic, Greek, and Latin traditions. We will have more to say about these intersections in coming posts. For now, though, we should stress that despite this more complicated picture of the Constantinian corpus, we still believe that Constantine was the guiding presence that brought this impressive new body of medical literature into being. This corpus was Monte Cassino’s signature contribution to medical history, and its “Constantinian seal” would remain fixed on European medicine until the end of the Middle Ages.

Further Reading:

  • Green, Monica H. “Gloriosissimus Galienus: Galen and Galenic Writings in the 11th– and 12th-Century Latin West,” in Brill Companion to the Reception of Galen, ed. Petros Bouras-Vallianatos and Barbara Zipser (forthcoming). (Still in press, but feel free to request an advance copy.)
  • Green, Monica H. “Medical Books,” in The European Book in the Twelfth Century, ed. Erik Kwakkel and Rodney Thomson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018), pp. 277-92.
  • Matheson, Lister. “Constantinus Africanus: Liber de coitu (Liber creatoris),” in Sex, Aging, and Death in a Medieval Medical Compendium: Trinity College Cambridge MS R.14.52, Its Texts, Language, and Scribe, ed. M. Teresa Tavormina, Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 292, 2 vols. (Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2006), vol. 1, pp. 287–326.
  • Montero Cartelle, Enrique, ed. Liber Constantini De stomacho: El tratado ‘Sobre el estómago’ de Constantino el Africano. Estudio, edición critica y traducción (Valladolid: Ediciones Universidad de Valladolid, 2016).
  • Newton, Francis. “Constantine the African and Monte Cassino: New Elements and the Text of the Isagoge,” in Constantine the African and ‘Ali ibn al-Abbas al-Maǧusi: The ‘Pantegni’ and Related Texts, ed. Charles Burnett and Danielle Jacquart, Studies in Ancient Medicine 10 (Leiden: Brill, 1994), pp. 16-47.

1. The other known medical translators into Latin in this period were Rusticus of Pisa and Johannes agarenus, who completed Constantine’s translation of al-Majusi’s surgery, ca. 1113-15; Stephen of Antioch (fl. 1127), a Pisan who worked in the recently established Crusader state of Antioch; Gerard of Cremona (d. 1187), who worked in Toledo; Burgundio of Pisa (d. 1193), who traveled to Constantinople, but made his translations of Galen’s Greek texts once home in Pisa; and Mark of Toledo (fl. 1193-1216). Mark may have originally been from Toledo, which remained a multi-lingual environment for quite some time after its conquest by Christians in 1085.

2. As we noted in the first installment of the Constantinus Africanus blog, the majority of Constantine’s works have not yet been edited. As more works are scrutinized, we will be developing a better sense of Constantine’s characteristic style.

3. As noted by Francis Newton, Constantine was assisted in his Latin by one of his auditors at Monte Cassino. As recounted in the Cassinese Chronicle, “Adto, who attended Constantine the African’s discussions and was chaplain to the Empress Agnes, took the texts that the aforementioned Constantine had translated out of different languages and put them into Latin in elegant style.” See Newton 1994, p. 24.

4. The critical edition of the De coitu, Enrique Montero Cartelle, ed., Constantini Liber de coitu: El tratado de andrología de Constantino el Africano. Monografias de la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela 77 (Santiago de Compostela, 1983), identified 15 copies of the text. Our project has identified 15 more. See also Enrique Montero Cartelle, Liber minor de coitu: Tratado menor de andrología. Anonimo Salernitano.  Edicion critica, traduccion y notas (Valladolid: Universidad de Valladolid, 1987); and, on the Arabic source of the De coitu, Enrique Montero Cartelle, “Sobre el autor arabe del Liber de coitu y el mode de trabajar de Constantino el Africano,” Medizinhistorisches Journal 23 (1988), 213–23.

5. Newton 1994.

6. For a detailed examination of the text in this copy, including the suggestion that it was made at the Benedictine monastery of Bobbio in northern Italy, see Manuel Vázquez Buján, “Sur les traces de l’ancienne traduction latine des Aphorismes dans le manuscrit Paris, BnF, latin 7102,” Galenos: Rivista di filologia dei testi medici antichi 2 (2008), 107-118.

“In Latin books, I found no author who gave certain and authentic information; therefore, I turned to the Arabic language…”

In our previous post, we stated that Constantine the African was one of the most important authors in the Latin (and thus the Western) medical tradition. But why? What did Constantine’s works offer that earlier texts in Latin– medical works that had been translated from Greek into Latin in late antiquity, for example– had lacked? This question takes us into the heart of the works that Constantine produced, the way he produced them, and the particular place in history that Constantine occupied. The answer, briefly, is that Constantine’s skillful and well-positioned translations drew on centuries of medical scholarship in the Islamic world that synthesized and surpassed the findings of the ancient medical tradition.

In antiquity, Greek authors– and the Greek-speaking Roman physician Galen (d. ca. 216 CE) above all– had produced a sophisticated body of medical knowledge, a set of texts that made substantial improvements upon earlier knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and, to a somewhat lesser extent, therapeutics. In the 600 years after Galen’s death, the production of scientific and medical works in Greek waned to a trickle, but this medical tradition was taken up with avidity by writers in Arabic and Persian after the rise of Islam in the seventh century. More than merely repeating or harmonizing what Galen had already said, this Islamic medical tradition added to and even disputed Galen’s findings in works of considerable sophistication.1 It described illnesses, such as smallpox, that had only been mentioned briefly (or not at all) by Galen; attempted to resolve inconsistencies in his works; and even disparaged Galen’s philosophical pretensions.

Nor was this all. Islamic writers, writing in the richest, most vibrant cities in the Islamic world (and indeed, some of the greatest cities in the Middle Ages), had access to medicinal substances and medical learning that Galen did not. Where cane sugar had been known to ancient medical writers as a rare import, it was readily available to Islamic physicians; where Roman scholars had some vague notions of India, scholars in the Islamic tradition were able to consult Arabic translations of Sanskrit medicine. The medical works that were produced in the Islamic world, then, were not warmed-over compilations of ancient medicine, but works that often broadened the tradition with new resources, observations, and reasoned debate.

Constantine the African’s translations played a central role in introducing medicinal substances from Islamic medicine such as sugar cane into the Latin medical tradition, here pictured in a thirteenth-century copy of the Tractatus de herbis, an expanded version of the Salernitan pharmaceutical treatise, Circa instans. British Library, MS Egerton 747, f. 106r.

On the other hand, the very vitality of the Islamic medical tradition posed its own set of challenges. After short centuries of conquest, Islamic rule was firmly established from the Iberian peninsula (modern Spain) in the west to beyond Persia in the east, and medical writers across this broad territory developed their own traditions. We can easily understand why: practitioners in Córdoba might need to treat illnesses differently from those encountered in Ghazna (in modern Afghanistan) and might draw upon different plant, animal, and mineral substances from which to confect remedies. What resulted was not unchecked chaos: medical scholars shared the same theoretical and methodological framework: Islamic medical writers agreed on the fundamental importance of the four humors, for example, and that humoral imbalance was one of the principal causes of disease. Once you scratched the surface of this tradition, however, its complexities became apparent: Arabic terminology jostled with loan words from Greek, Persian, Syriac, and even Sanskrit, while authors gave varying explanations and remedies for a wide range of illnesses.

Islamic medicine, then, was always characterized by a tension between its centrifugal tendencies and the desire of some scholars to make its complexities orderly and systematic. The great systematizer ʻAlī ibn al-ʻAbbās al-Majūsī (d. after 977), for example, who spent much of his career in Shiraz (in modern Iran), self-consciously tried to improve the overwhelmingly long and disorganized works of his predecessors with a rigorously organized overview of medical theory and practice in twenty books. But medical scholarship did not stand still while al-Majūsī worked, and medical scholarship also flourished elsewhere, as in the vibrant medical tradition of the North African city of Kairouan. Where al-Majūsī’s overview of medicine sought to systematize Islamic medicine, the Muslim physician Ibn al-Jazzār (d. ca. 979) put forward his own view of medicine in works that explained diseases and therapeutics for lay readers while also subtly delineating the moral ramifications of health and disease.

In the tenth and eleventh centuries, the Islamic territories covering a huge swathe of Eurasia, North Africa, and beyond were renowned for their power, wealth, and cultural refinement. But even more than the breadth of the territory controlled, however, the vitality of Islamic civilization is suggested by the fact that centers of major cultural importance could be found at opposite ends of this territory, from Córdoba in Al-Andalus (now modern Spain) to Ghazna (Ghazni, in modern Afghanistan). Map © Ian Mladjov

In contrast with the Islamic medical tradition, the Latin medical tradition was a far more modest affair. The Benedictine Rule, which structured monastic life for much of the Middle Ages, enjoined the care of the sick, but few monasteries took this as encouragement to systematically collect and study the works of medicine then available. Some medical practitioners were highly skilled (and those in Salerno in southern Italy were especially famed), but few efforts had been made before the eleventh century to harmonize their insights with theoretical works of ancient medicine. There can be little surprise, then, that when Constantine the African traveled from North Africa to southern Italy in the mid-eleventh century, he was unimpressed by what he found. What is likely to be one of his earliest works gives his appraisal: he had looked for a book on urines in Latin, Constantine explained, but found no author who gave “certain and authentic information,” and so he turned to Arabic instead.

As in his work on urines, Constantine’s other texts describe the difficulty of mastering medicine from Latin texts in vivid detail. Here, in his translation of a work on fevers (the Liber febrium) from a work of Ishaq al-Isra’ili’s, Constantine explains that the sad state of his student John (including “continual tears” and “the extreme scarcity of want”) had finally convinced him to translate a work on the subject. Kassel, MS Med. 15, f. 1r.

But for all of their virtues, presenting Arabic texts to Latin readers in a comprehensible way was a tall order. For one, Constantine was compelled to bring the rich and diverse Islamic medical tradition into some kind of harmony. At the same time, Constantine had to make these works accessible to his Latin readers. In the Pantegni and the Viaticum, two of his major translations, Constantine was judicious– and sometimes even severe– in pruning what he found in al-Majūsī’s systematized overview of Islamic medicine and Ibn al-Jazzār’s handbook of practical medicine, respectively. At times, Constantine was meticulous in rendering his sources into pithy Latin. In other cases, his compressions are startling: in translating the Viaticum, for example, Constantine occasionally leaves out the quantities in his medical recipes! But despite his omissions– and we will discuss the significance of Constantine’s omissions of the names of al-Majūsī, Ibn al-Jazzār, and his other Arabic sources in a later post– Constantine made a huge amount of medicine accessible and comprehensible to his contemporaries and successors.

When we consider the comprehensive body of texts that Constantine produced (the topic of next month’s post) and the specialized vocabulary he constructed to render them into Latin (which we will also address soon), it is perfectly comprehensible that generations of earlier scholars claimed, with some grandiosity, that Constantine had taught his contemporaries to speak. It might be more accurate, however, to claim that his copious translations presented Latin readers with a synthesis of some of the most refined works of medicine then in existence.

Further Reading:

  • Françoise Micheau, “‘Alī ibn Al-‘Abbās al-Maǧūsī et son milieu,” in: Constantine the African and ‘Ali ibn al-Abbas al-Maǧusi: The ‘Pantegni’ and Related Texts, ed. Charles Burnett and Danielle Jacquart, Studies in Ancient Medicine 10.  (Leiden: Brill, 1994), pp. 1-15.
  • Francis Newton, “Arabic Medicine and Other Arabic Cultural Influences in Southern Italy in the Time of Constantinus Africanus (saec. XI²),” in Between Text and Patient: The Medical Enterprise in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, ed. Florence Eliza Glaze and Brian Nance, Micrologus’ Library, 30 (Florence: SISMEL/Edizioni del Galuzzo, 2011), pp. 25-55.
  • Emilie Savage-Smith, ‘Were the Four Humours Fundamental to Medieval Islamic Medical Practice?’ In: The Body in Balance: Humoral Theory in Practice, ed. by Elisabeth Hsu and Peregrine Horden (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2013), pp. 89–106.

1. By convention, modern scholars refer to medicine under Islamic rule as “Islamic,” even though Christians and Jews also played a major role in the tradition. Non-Muslims, in fact, wrote a number of the texts that Constantine translated. For further discussion, see Peter E. Pormann and Emilie Savage Smith, Medieval Islamic Medicine, Georgetown University Press (Washington, DC: 2007). 

Ego Constantinus africanus montis cassinensis monacus

Constantinus Africanus (Constantine the African) is likely the most famous medieval writer most people have never heard of. At latest count, we can identify at least 1000 extant manuscript copies of his three dozen writings on various aspects of medicine. Those writings, collectively, probably comprise over one million words. To put that in perspective, the most famous Benedictine monk of the Middle Ages, Benedict of Nursia, is represented in only about 300 extant copies of his Rule describing the monastic life. Most of Constantine’s contemporary writers at Monte Cassino, the motherhouse of the Benedictine order, are known from only a handful of extant copies.

So who is Constantine the African? And why are we launching this blog devoted to him and his works? First and foremost, Constantine was the first to render a major body of Arabic science into Latin. Yes, a few works of mathematics and astronomy had become known in Europe in the 10th century. But no one had yet attempted what Constantine did: bringing a whole science, from introductory textbooks to works of great complexity, into the Latin language. Once translated, these works could—and did—circulate all over Europe. They transformed medical theory and practice in the lands we think of as western Europe, giving it a medical vocabulary and certain common concepts that we can still recognize in biomedicine today.

This is from the preface to Constantine’s translation of Isaac Israeli’s (d. 932) book on urines. In the 4th and 5th lines, Constantine identifies himself: “Quem ego constantinus affricanus montiscassinensis monachus. latinȩ linguȩ ad transferendum destinaui dare” (“which [book] I, Constantine the African, monk of Monte Cassino, committed myself to translate into the Latin language”). Source: Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, MS Urb. lat. 1415, f. 1v (detail).

In several of his writings, Constantine identified himself with the title we’ve used here: Ego Constantinus africanus montis cassinensis monacus. “I, Constantine the African, monk of Monte Cassino.” Constantine’s self-naming raises a host of intriguing questions. All evidence suggests that he did indeed come from “Africa,” which here means the North African territory of “Ifriqiyah,” and Constantine appears to have come from the territory of modern Tunisia in particular. Ifriqiyah had come under Muslim rule in the eighth century, as part of the general expansion of Islam across North Africa. But what can we infer from the name “Constantine”? It was, after all, the name of one of the most famous converts in Christian history, the fourth-century emperor Constantine. Was Constantine, then, an Arabic-speaking Muslim who converted to Christianity? Or did Constantine come from an Arabic-speaking Christian community in North Africa? Scholars have been unsure how to untangle this aspect of Constantine’s background, though we will suggest a solution to this puzzle in a later post.

What matters for today is that our Constantine was a native Arabic speaker. And he was thoroughly immersed in Arabic medicine. In later posts, we’ll talk more about the period of efflorescence in Arabic medicine that Constantine was able to draw upon when he crossed the Mediterranean in the eleventh century, bringing a cache of medical books with him (at least one of which was partially lost). In fact, as we’ll show, Constantine captures, in his own life story, larger trends unfolding at the time that would bring the economies and cultures of the Islamic, Christian, and Jewish societies in the Mediterranean more tightly into contact.

In this passage from Book I of the De melancholia (On Melancholy), a translation of Ishaq ibn ‘Imran’s treatise on the same topic, Constantine follows his source in identifying “the sudden loss of his learned books” as the reason someone might fall into the despair of melancholy. Source: London, British Library, MS Burney 216, f. 95ra (detail).

So, why launch this blog now? First of all, today, the 22nd of December, is Constantine’s obit day—the day his death was celebrated at the Abbey. One of the few pieces of concrete biographical information we have for him was the entry of his name into Leo Marsicanus’s calendar at Monte Cassino, listing his death date as December 22. In what year that happened, we’re not sure. It would have been before 1098 or 1099, the date of the calendar, though beyond that we can’t be more precise. He was said to have “died full of days,” and from his surviving works we can see what extraordinary success he had in laying the foundations for a full curriculum of medical learning.

The Cassinese Calendar, written at Monte Cassino in 1098-1099, under the direction of Leo Marsicanus, who first started the monastery’s chronicle. The second line of this entry for the 22nd of December (the 11th kalends of January) indicates the date of death for Constantinus monachus medicus. Source: Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, MS Borg. lat. 211, f. 13r (detail).

A bigger question is why, if Constantine has been invisible for so long, is he suddenly coming into view? There are a lot of reasons for this, some having to do with the recent growth of history of medicine as a major subdiscipline in medieval studies, some having to do with the amazing new possibilities for manuscript research that allow us access to so many copies of Constantine’s still-unedited works. One reason we are particularly delighted to share our new understanding about Constantine in this blog is because in his life story and in his widespread effects on European culture, he gives us the opportunity to see a “global Middle Ages.” Constantine’s own travels may have been confined to the Mediterranean. But the medical system he brought into Latin drew upon medical theory first articulated in antiquity but expanded and refined in the Islamic world. And it drew on the pharmaceutical lore of medical practitioners across central Eurasia, North Africa, and beyond.

This blog is co-authored by Monica Green and Brian Long. We are both historians of medicine and are both editing and studying Constantine’s many writings. We will be joined from time to time by guest bloggers as well. Our aim is to begin to share our findings about Constantine: new manuscripts we’ve discovered; new information about Constantine’s Arabic sources; new leads about the impact of Constantine’s work in transforming the landscape of learned medicine in Europe. Almost every aspect of medicine would indeed change under Constantine’s influence. The life and works of this singular African monk therefore afford us the opportunity to peer into the heart of one of the most transformative periods of history.

Further Reading:

There isn’t a lot published on Constantine the African yet, and as we’ve noted, most of his works have not yet been edited, let alone translated into modern languages. Here are a few publications that can give you a hint of how interesting his life and times were.